A special volume in the Chinese Research Perspectives on the Environmentseries, this English-language volume is an edited collection of articles from the Chinese-language volume of The Annual Review of Low-Carbon Development in China (2011-2012). This is a pioneering volume on China's low-carbon development efforts, challenges, plans, trends, and policy recommendations, all based on research conducted by the Climate Policy Initiative at Tsinghua University, China. In this work, key results in China's 11th Five-Year Plan are explored by reviewing China's performance against targets, while the implementation of key policies and institutions are described with a focus on the effectiveness of low-carbon development policies in China during the period of 2005-2010. In addition, focus is placed on key indicators of low-carbon development such as energy consumption, CO2 emission, and low-carbon technologies. It discusses issues ranging from the low-carbon transformation of China’s economy to innovative low-carbon technologies, from low-carbon financing and incentive policies to changes in the business sector and consumer behaviors. The compilation offers not only insights on facts, but also introduces discussion on some of the more controversial issues China faces as it works to meet climate and energy challenges up through 2020.